As ofit is the leading cause of death in the United States, England, Canada and Wales killing one person every 34 seconds in the United States alone. Types of heart diseases: Coronary heart disease, Cardiomyopathy, Cardiovascular disease, Ischaemic heart disease, Heart failure Hypertensive heart disease, Inflammatory heart disease, Valvular heart disease. Coronary heart disease Coronary heart disease refers to the failure of the coronary circulation to supply adequate circulation to cardiac muscle and surrounding systemic veins quizlet.
Coronary heart disease is most commonly equated with Coronary artery disease although coronary heart disease can be due to other causes, such as coronary vasospasm. Coronary artery disease is a disease of the artery caused by the accumulation of atheromatous plaques within the walls of the arteries that supply the myocardium.
Angina pectoris chest pain and myocardial infarction heart attack are symptoms of and conditions caused by coronary heart disease. OverAmericans die of coronary heart disease every year.
In the United Kingdom,Extrinsic cardiomyopathies cardiomyopathies where the primary pathology is outside the myocardium itself. Most cardiomyopathies are extrinsic, because by far the most common cause of a cardiomyopathy systemic veins quizlet ischemia.
The World Health Organization calls these specific cardiomyopathies. Congenital heart disease A congenital heart defect CHD is a defect in the structure of the heart and great vessels of a newborn.
Most heart defects either obstruct blood flow in the heart or vessels near it or cause blood to flow through the heart in an abnormal pattern, although other defects affecting heart rhythm such as long QT syndrome can also occur. Heart defects are among the most common birth defects and are the leading cause of birth defect-related deaths. Symptoms and signs are related to the type and severity of the heart defect. Some children have no signs while others may exhibit shortness of breath, cyanosis, chest pain, syncope, sweating, heart murmur, respiratory infections, underdeveloping of limbs and muscles, poor feeding, or poor growth, build up of blood and fluid in lungs, feet, ankles and legs.
Congenital heart defects cause abnormal heart structure resulting in production of certain sounds called heart murmur. Doctors can sometimes detect it with stethescope.
However, systemic veins quizlet heart murmurs are not caused by congenital heart defects.
CHD symptoms frequently present early in life, but it's possible for some CHDs to go undetected throughout life. The cause may be due to a genetic predisposition or an environmental exposure during pregnancy. Known genetic causes of heart disease includes chromosomal abnormalities such as trisomies 21, 13, and 18, as well as a range of newly recognised genetic point mutations, point deletions and other genetic abnormalities as seen in syndromes such as Velo-Cardio-Facial Syndrome, familial ASD with heart block, Alagille syndrome, Noonan syndrome, and many more.
Known antenatal environmental factors include maternal infections Rubelladrugs alcohol, hydantoin, lithium and thalidomide and maternal illness diabetes mellitus, phenylketonuria, and systemic lupus erythematosus.
Classification: Hypoplasia can affect the heart, which typically results in the failure of either the right ventricle or the left ventricle to develop adequately, systemic veins quizlet only one side of the heart capable of pumping blood to the body and lungs. Hypoplasia of the heart is rare but is the most serious form of CHD; it is called hypoplastic left heart syndrome when it affects the left side of the heart and hypoplastic right heart syndrome when it affects the right side of the heart.
In both conditions, the presence of a patent ductus arteriosus and, when hypoplasia affects the right side of the heart, a patent foramen ovale is vital to the infant's ability to survive until emergency heart surgery can be performed, since without these pathways blood cannot circulate to the body or lungs, depending on which side of the heart is defective.
Hypoplasia of the heart is generally a cyanotic heart defect. Obstruction defects occur when heart valves, arteries, or veins are abnormally narrow or blocked.
Common obstruction defects include pulmonary valve stenosis, aortic valve stenosis, and coarctation of the aorta, with other types such as bicuspid aortic valve stenosis and subaortic stenosis being comparatively rare. Any narrowing or blockage can cause heart enlargement or hypertension.
The septum is a wall of tissue which separates the left heart from the right heart. It is comparatively common for defects to exist in the interatrial septum or the interventricular septum, allowing blood to flow from the left side of the heart systemic veins quizlet the right, reducing the heart's efficiency.
Septal defects may or may not cause cyanosis depending on the severity of the defect. Cyanotic heart defects are called systemic veins quizlet because they result in cyanosis, a bluish-grey discoloration of the skin due to a lack of oxygen in the body. Such defects include persistent truncus arteriosus, total anomalous pulmonary venous connection, tetralogy of Fallot, transposition of the great vessels, and tricuspid atresia.
You can help by expanding it with reliably sourced additions. At other times the defect is so small and does not require any treatment.
Medications include diuretics, which aid the baby in eliminating water, salts, and digoxin and in strengthening the contraction of the heart. This slows the heartbeat and removes some fluid from tissues. Some defects require surgical procedures to repair as much as possible to restore circulation back to normal. In some cases, multiple surgeries are needed to be performed to help balance the circulation.
Interventional cardiology now offers patients minimally invasive alternatives to surgery. Device closures can now be treated with a standard transcatheter procedure using a closure device mounted on a balloon catheter. Nutritional diseases Ischemic or non-ischaemic cardiomyopathy Commonly used term "ischemic cardiomyopathy," referring to myocardial ischemia and infarction, is not supported by current cardiomyopathies classification schemes.
Ischemic cardiomyopathy is a weakness in the muscle of the heart due to inadequate oxygen delivery to the myocardium with coronary artery disease being the most common cause. Anemia and sleep apnea are relatively common conditions that can contribute to ischemic myocardium and hyperthyroidism can cause a 'relative' ischemia secondary to high output heart failure.
Individuals with ischemic cardiomyopathy typically have a history of myocardial infarction heart attackalthough longstanding ischemia can cause enough damage to the myocardium to precipitate a clinically significant cardiomyopathy even in the absence of myocardial infarction.
In a typical presentation, the area of the heart affected by a myocardial infarction will initially become necrotic as it dies, and will then systemic veins quizlet replaced by myocardial scarring fibrosis. This fibrotic tissue is akinetic; it is no longer muscle and cannot contribute to the heart's function as a pump.
If the akinetic region of the heart is systemic veins quizlet enough, the affected side of the heart i. In some individuals, severe emotional stress may lead to "takotsubo cardiomyopathy", a specific cardiomyopathy which has a particular aetiology Intrinsic cardiomyopathies: An intrinsic cardiomyopathy is defined as weakness in the muscle of the heart that is not due to an identifiable external cause.
This definition was used to categorize previously idiopathic cardiomyopathies although specific external causes have since been identified for many. For example, alcoholism has been identified as a cause for some forms of dilated cardiomyopathy. To make a diagnosis of an intrinsic cardiomyopathy, significant coronary artery disease should be ruled out amongst other things.
The term intrinsic cardiomyopathy does not describe the specific etiology of weakened heart muscle. The intrinsic cardiomyopathies consist of a variety of disease states, each with their own causes. Many intrinsic cardiomyopathies now have identifiable external causes including drug and alcohol toxicity, certain infections including Hepatitis Cand various genetic and idiopathic i.
Intrinsic cardiomyopathies are generally classified into four putei bea o urzica în varicoza but additional types are also recognized: Dilated cardiomyopathy DCMthe most common form, and one of the leading indications for heart transplantation.
In DCM the heart especially the left ventricle is enlarged and the systemic veins quizlet function is diminished. In some cases it manifests as peripartum cardiomyopathy, and in other cases it may be associated with alcoholism. In HCM the heart muscle is thickened, which can obstruct blood flow and prevent the heart from functioning properly.
Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy ARVC arises from an electrical disturbance of the heart in which heart muscle despre cel mai important picior varicos replaced by fibrous scar tissue.
The right ventricle is generally most affected. Restrictive cardiomyopathy RCM is an uncommon cardiomyopathy. The walls of the ventricles are stiff, but may not be thickened, and resist the normal filling of the heart with blood.
A rare form of restrictive cardiomyopathy is the obliterative cardiomyopathy, seen in the hypereosinophilic syndrome. In this type of systemic veins quizlet, the myocardium in the apices of the left and right ventricles becomes thickened and fibrotic, causing a decrease in the volumes of the ventricles and a type of restrictive cardiomyopathy. Noncompaction cardiomyopathy has been recognized as a separate type since the s. The term refers to a cardiomyopathy where the left ventricle wall has failed to grow properly from birth and has a spongy appearance when viewed during an echocardiogram.
Symptoms and signs may mimic those of veterans varicose any form of heart disease.
Chest pain is common. Mild myocarditis or cardiomyopathy is frequently asymptomatic; severe cases are associated with heart failure, arrhythmias, and systemic embolization. Manifestations of the underlying disease e. Most patients with biopsy-proven myocarditis report a recent viral prodrome preceding cardiovascular symptoms. ECG abnormalities are often present, although the changes are frequently nonspecific.
A pattern systemic veins quizlet of left ventricular hypertrophy may systemic veins quizlet present.
Flat or inverted T waves are most common, often with low-voltage QRS complexes. Intraventricular conduction defects and bundle branch block, especially left bundle branch block, are also common. An echocardiogram is useful to detect wall motion abnormalities or a pericardial effusion.
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Chest radiographs can be normal or can show evidence of congestive heart failure with pulmonary edema or cardiomegaly. Treatment depends on the type of cardiomyopathy, but may include medication, implanted pacemakers, defibrillators, or ventricular assist devices LVADsor ablation.
The goal of treatment is often symptom relief, and some patients may eventually require a heart transplant. Treatment of cardiomyopathy and other heart diseases using alternative methods such as stem cell therapy is commercially available but is not supported by convincing evidence.
Famous cases: Inthe addition of cobalt compounds to stabilize beer foam in Canada led to cardiomyopathy, which came to be known as beer drinker's cardiomyopathy Dave Williams of Drowning Pool died of cardiomyopathy in Robert Systemic veins quizlet, inventor of "The Atkins Diet" suffered from cardiomyopathy in the years before his death from a fall.
Alexei Cherepanov, 19 year old professional ice hockey player, died of cardiomyopathy during an ice hockey game in Andy Hallett, a 33 year old actor from the television series Angel, died of congestive heart failure inbrought on by a cardiomyopathy from a tooth infection five years earlier. Slash, guitarist for Guns N Roses, survived cardiomyopathy.
Reggie Lewis, captain and all-star of the Boston Celtics, died from hypertrophic cardiomyopathy at age Cuttino Mobley, a retired NBA player who last played for the LA Clippers, was forced to retire after being diagnosed with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in late Hank Gathers, a college basketball star recruit who played for Loyola Marymount University, collapsed during a free throw attempt against UCSB and later again against the University of Portland.
The second time he never got up and was pronounced dead on arrival. Nick Carter of the Backstreet Boys was diagnosed with cardiomyopathy after suffering chest pains. Systemic veins quizlet Gallagher, who placed second on the TV reality show Survivor: Palau, was diagnosed with viral cardiomyopathy several years later. The Amazing Jonathan was diagnosed with "a serious heart condition" in March The performer's website identified the condition as cardiomyopathy and went on to assert that, due to a combination of weight loss and blood thinners, he was doing well and did not intend to retire.
Hypertensive cardiomyopathy Symptoms: Fatigue Irregular pulse Swelling of feet Weight gain Nausea Shortness of breath Difficulty sleeping flat in bed Bloating Greater need to urinate at night Conditions potential complications Left ventricular hypertrophy Coronary heart disease Congestive heart failure Hypertensive cardiomyopathy Valvular cardiomyopathy Inflammatory cardiomyopathy Cardiomyopathy secondary to a systemic metabolic disease Alcoholic cardiomyopathy Alcoholic cardiomyopathy is a disease in which the chronic long-term abuse of alcohol leads to heart failure.
Alcoholic cardiomyopathy is a type systemic veins quizlet dilated cardiomyopathy. Due to the direct toxic effects of alcohol on heart muscle, the heart is unable to pump blood efficiently, leading to heart failure. It can affect other parts of the body if the heart failure is severe. It systemic veins quizlet most common in males between the ages of Symptoms presented by the occurrence of alcoholic cardiomyopathy are the result of the heart failing and usually occur after the disease has progressed to an advanced stage.
Therefore the symptoms have a lot in common with other forms of cardiomyopathy. These symptoms can include: Ankle, feet, and leg swelling Overall swelling Loss of appetite Shortness of systemic veins quizlet, especially with activity Breathing difficulty while lying down Fatigue, weakness, faintness Decreased alertness or concentration Cough containing mucus, or pink, frothy material Decreased urine output oliguria Need to urinate ce trebuie sa framântai de la varicoza night nocturia Palpitations Irregular or rapid pulse Diagnosis: Abnormal heart sounds, murmurs, EKG abnormalities, and enlarged heart on chest x-ray may lead to the diagnosis.
Echocardiogram abnormalities and cardiac catheterization or angiogram to rule out coronary artery blockages, along with a history of alcohol abuse can confirm the diagnosis. Treatment for alcoholic cardiomyopathy involves lifestyle changes, including complete abstinence from alcohol use, a low sodium diet, and fluid restriction, as well as medications.
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Medications may include ACE inhibitors, beta blockers, and diuretics which are commonly used with other forms of cardiomyopathy to reduce the strain on the heart. Persons with congestive heart failure may be considered for surgical insertion of an ICD or a pacemaker which can improve heart function. In cases systemic veins quizlet the heart failure is irreversible and worsening, heart transplant may be considered.
Treatment will possibly prevent the heart from further deterioration but is unlikely to reverse the reduced function that has already occurred. Diabetic cardiomyopathy Of the causes leading to cardiac dysfunction, diabetes is the most prevalent. Furthermore, two-thirds of diabetics will eventually die of some sort of cardiovascular disease. Aside from large vessel disease and accelerated atherosclerosis, which is very common in diabetes, diabetic cardiomyopathy DCM is a clinical condition diagnosed systemic veins quizlet ventricular dysfunction develops in patients with diabetes in the absence of coronary atherosclerosis and hypertension.
DCM may be characterized functionally by ventricular dilation, myocyte hypertrophy, prominent interstitial fibrosis and decreased or preserved systolic function in the presence of a diastolic dysfunction.
In most uv cu vene varicoase, DCM is detected with concomitant hypertension or coronary artery disease.
One of the earliest signs is mild left ventricular diastolic dysfunction with little effect on ventricular filling. Also, the diabetic patient may show subtle signs of DCM related to decreased left ventricular compliance or left ventricular hypertrophy or a combination of both. A prominent a wave can also be noted in the jugular venous pulse, and the cardiac apical impulse may be overactive or sustained throughout systole.